BLOODMOBILE BONE MARROW DONATION
NEW BLOOD DONOR INFORMATION
CALIFORNIA BLOOD CENTERS ::
NEW YORK BLOOD
(American Association of Blood Banks - the professional
society for institutions and individuals involved in Blood banking.
Acidosis - Excessive acidity of body fluids due to
accumulation of acids as may happen in diabetes or kidney disease.
Acute hemolytic transfusion reaction (HTR or AHTR) - Acute
hemolytic transfusion reaction can cause serious, potentially fatal
consequences. HTRs are most often caused by ABO Blood type
incompatibility between the Blood product needed by the patient and
red Blood cells given the patient during transfusion.
Agranulocytes - The leukocytes which lack specific granules;
however, these cells may or may not contain azurophilic granules.
Agranulocytes are spherical in shape, contain nuclei and include
lymphocytes and monocytes. These cells are part of the formed elements
of whole Blood. Whole Blood - A general description for a sample of
Blood taken from the venous or arterial circulation. It is composed of
Blood cells, platelets, and plasma.
- Major Blood protein. Monitors nutritional status, or sometimes
kidney status in protein-losing kidney problems.
- A smaller part of a larger portion, separated, set aside or drawn
Phosphatase - A liver enzyme, elevated in obstructive conditions
of the liver.
Alleles - Alternate forms or varieties of a gene. The alleles
for a trait occupy the same locus or position on homologous
chromosomes and thus govern the same trait. However, because they are
different, their action may result in different expressions of that
- A type of antibody directed against substances recognized
as foreign to the host. (see Alloimmunization)
Allogeneic or Allogeneic Blood - Blood from someone else that
matches yours, usually from a volunteer Blood donor. Also referred to
as homologous Blood.
Alloimmunization or Alloantibody - The
process whereby antibodies are formed which are directed towards
antigens from other people, including leukocytes. It is one of the
most serious transfusion complications.
American Association of Blood Banks - see AABB.
Amino Acids - The organic molecules that are building blocks
of proteins. There are at 20 different kinds of amino acids in living
things. Proteins are composed of different combinations of amino acids
assembled in chain-like molecules. Amino acids are primarily composed
of carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, and nitrogen. process of making an
antibody against a foreign antigen.
- A pancreatic digestive enzyme. Elevated in pancreatitis, or with
injury to the bowel.
Antibody - Proteins that react with antigens on red Blood
cells and may destroy transfused red Blood cells.
Anticoagulant - A substance that prevents the clotting or
thickening of Blood.
Antigen - A substance on the surface of red Blood cells that
elicits an immune response when transfused into a patient who lacks
Antinuclear Antibody - (ANA) basically a test for lupus and
other auto-immune inflammatory diseases.
Antiserum - Human Blood serum containing antibodies that are
specific for one or more antigens.
Anemia - weakness, fatigue, and paleness resulting from a
deficiency of red Blood cells or insufficient amounts of hemoglobin
molecules within the red cells.
Anisocytosis - Condition which is characterized by a
considerable variation in the size of cells, especially red Blood
Apheresis - A procedure where whole Blood is removed from the
body and desired component(s), such as plasma or platelets is retained
and the remainder of the Blood is returned to the donor.
Aplastic Anemia - An anemia caused by deficient red Blood
cell production by the bone marrow.
Autoimmune - The process of making antibodies against oneís
self (oneís intrinsic antigens).
Autologous Blood - Autologous Blood (donation) is Blood drawn
from one individual to be given back to that individual, or a close
very Blood match designee, as the need for transfusion arises.
Exclusive or supplemental use of autologous Blood can eliminate or
reduce adverse effects of transfusion. Patients who receive their own
Blood receive the safest possible Blood transfusions. Reactions due to
components of Blood such as white Blood cells, platelets and serum
protein are eliminated with autologous Blood.
Bacterial Sepsis - See Sepsis below.
Bilirubin - The yellow-red pigment of human bile.
Small amounts of it are normally found in Blood and urine.
At high bilirubin levels, Blood and urine change color and the skin
becomes yellow or jaundiced. This is one of the symptoms
of mismatched Blood transfusions or mother-fetus incompatibility
in Blood type.
Blood - The fluid which circulates
throughout the body carrying nourishment and oxygen to the cells and
tissue, and at the same time takes away waste matter and carbon
BloodBook.com - The Blood Book,
information about Blood, Blood testing facts, Blood transfusion,
Blood collection and donation, Blood safety, Blood diseases,
common Blood disorders, self (autologous) Blood collection and long
term Blood storage. Visit the BloodBook website
Blood Bank place where whole blood or plasma is typed, processed, and
appropriately stored for future use in Blood transfusion.
Laws - Blood banks are controlled by state and federal laws.
A sample of Blood bank law, Blood bank rules and Blood plasma laws and rules
Blood Cells -
The red (erythrocytes) and white (leukocytes) Blood cells which comprise the minor portion
of whole Blood.
Blood Count - The
complete Blood count, or CBC.
Blood Culture - The
normally sterile specimen of a patient's Blood that is incubated with a nutrient medium;
if bacteria are present, the specimen will become cloudy with germs as they multiply
- Blood∑mo∑bile (Blŭd'mə-bēl')
n. - A motor vehicle
equipped for collecting Blood from Blood donors. Mobile Medical Blood
Collection Vehicle Visit the
to learn more about the Bloodmobile. In most municipal codes Bloodmobile is defined as "A
vehicle, or portable structure transported by a vehicle, easily
transportable in one or more sections, which is used to provide Blood
collection services on a temporary basis in any one location." By most local
community codes, a Bloodmobile may be parked in one spot for a maximum of 72
hours at one time.
Blood Plasma - The pale yellow or gray-yellow,
protein-containing fluid portion of the blood in which the blood cells and
platelets are normally suspended. (see Plasma, below.)
Blood Smear - A laboratory procedure for examination of a
small drop of Blood spread over a glass slide.
Blood Type -
type falls into one of four Blood groups,
or types: A, B, AB or O. The Blood, in the
ABO Blood group, type depends on the presence or absence
of certain substances on red Blood cells. Blood types are inherited.
Marrow - The soft tissue located in the cavities of bones
which is responsible for Blood cell and platelet production.
Buffy Coat - A thin grayish white layer of white Blood cells
(leukocytes) and platelets covering the top of the packed red Blood
cells of a hematocrit.
Blood Urea Nitrogen. A measure of the kidneys' ability to excrete
urea, the chief waste product of protein breakdown. Elevated in renal
failure; influenced by the amount of protein intake in the diet.
- Blood chemical necessary for proper nerve, bone and muscle function
Codominance - The situation in which two different alleles
for a trait are expressed unblended in the phenotype of heterozygous
individuals. Neither allele is dominant or recessive, so that both
influence the phenotype. Type AB Blood is an example. Such traits
are said to be codominant.
Component - Blood is made up of different "parts" or
components: red Blood cells, plasma, platelets and several types of
white Blood cells. Donated Blood is often separated into components so
that patients can be transfused only with the "part" of Blood needed.
Cord Blood Registry - There
are questions when you are pregnant about cord blood, cord blood bank,
cordblood, the cord blood registry and umbilical cord blood storage.
Pregnancy, a new baby, child birth, birth, maternity, baby gift, stem
cell and fetus are new words to a new mother. Newborn babies,
transplant, expecting, expectant, fetal development, mother, obstetric
and advise from your obstetrician to parents. Cord Blood Banking is
very important. We suggest that you learn more about saving your
baby's Cord Blood after a pregnancy and maternity, look into umbilical
cord blood storage. This is a must for expectant parents before
childbirth while planning your birthing plan options and parenting.
Biomedical and Blood stem cell banking decisions must be made. Free
Cord Blood testing and Free Cord Blood Registry.
- The body's natural stress-fighting and anti-inflammatory hormone
produced by the adrenal cortex. A cortisol level test is a Blood test
that measures the amount of cortisol in your Blood. Normal values of
cortisol at 8 a.m. are 6 to 23 mcg/dl. Normal value ranges may vary
slightly among different laboratories and testing times. Cortisol
levels normally rise and fall during the day, repeating
on a 24-hour cycle. Often, highest levels are at about 6
to 8 a.m. and lowest levels are at about midnight.
Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease (CJD) - (kroits '
felt - yš ' kŰp) A disease (also known as "Classic CJD") that creates
a protein plaque on the brain and eventually leads to a rapid death.
It usually occurs in patients over the age of 60.
Variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease (nvCJD) - A new variation
of CJD that initially presents itself with psychiatric symptoms at a
much younger age, on average 28 years old, than traditional CJD. The
disease always leads to death and runs its course in about 18 months.
Creatinine - A measure of the kidneys' ability to excrete waste.
Comparing the excretion of creatinine to urea helps assess kidney
function versus dehydration.
Crenation - A process by which red Blood cells shrink or
shrivel, giving a notched appearance to the cells' profiles.
Cross Match - The finding of exact similarities between a
patientís Blood and a donorís Blood. This process involves careful and
exacting laboratory tests.
Cytomegalo Virus (CMV) - A virus that resides in leukocytes.
In certain patient populations, CMV infection can cause fever,
hepatitis, pneumonia, and severe brain damage and can ultimately lead
to death. In North America, 50% or more of the adult population has
been exposed to the virus, making transfusion-transmitted CMV a high
Diagnostic Tests - Blood testing utilized when a specific
disease is suspected, to verify the presence and severity of that
disease. (see Screening Tests)
Directed Donation - Blood donated by a friend or family
member for use by a designated patient.
Dilutional Coagulopathy - Usually seen in patients with
trauma after receiving multiple red Blood transfusions. The
transfusions dilute the bodyís own platelets and coagulation factors,
which may predispose to bleeding. These individuals may require
platelet and plasma transfusions.
Donate or Donation - To give Blood. A normal Blood donation
is comprised of a little less than one U. S. pint. Specific components
of whole Blood can also be donated. There are 3 basic categories of
Blood donation. The first is Voluntary Blood donation; a process of
Blood donation where the donor donates Blood without accepting in
return any consideration in cash or in kind from any source. The
second is Exchange/Replacement Blood donation; a process where a
person donates Blood for his/her family members or relatives or
friends, and takes the Blood after it is tested and/or take the same
unit of Blood from the Blood Bankís stock in exchange for the donated
Blood. The third is Autologous Blood donation, where an individual
donates Blood for ones own use or reuse.
Matter - The tough fibrous membrane covering the brain and
the spinal cord and lining the inner surface of the skull. It is the
outermost of the three meninges that surround the brain and spinal
Electrolytes are a large
category of substances dissolved in plasma. The balance of water and
salt is critical to good health. Electrolyte testing reveals important
indicators of the amount of water and salt in your body, including:
sodium, potassium, calcium, chloride, bicarbonate (carbon dioxide) and
magnesium. These chemicals are essential in many bodily functions
including fluid balance, nerve conduction, muscle contraction
(including the heart), Blood clotting and pH balance.
Engraftment - The process by which transplanted or transfused
cells (for example, after a bone marrow transplant) begin to grow and
reproduce themselves within the recipient.
Ethnic - Referring to people with origins from different
parts of the world.
Erythroblastosis Fetalis - A Blood disease of fetuses and
newborn infants caused by the mother's anti-Rh+ antibodies
agglutinating her infant's Rh+ Blood. Symptoms include life
threatening anemia, jaundice, fever, swollen tissues from edema, and
an enlarged liver and spleen. Serious cases of Erythroblastosis
fetalis are treated by Blood replacement. This condition is also
referred to as "hemolytic anemia" and "hydrops fetalis".
Erythrocytapheresis - An apheresis procedure where red Blood
cells are collected.
Erythrocytes - The relatively large red cells in Blood that
transport oxygen from the lungs to all of the living tissue in the
body. Normally, 40% to 45% of human Blood volume consists of
Extracorporeal - Blood circulation occurring outside of the
body, for example, in an apheresis machine during donation.
Factor XIII - A clotting factor that stabilizes Blood clots.
Factor VIII Rich Cryoprecipitate - Contains extra clotting
factor used to control bleeding in hemophiliacs.
False-negative - a Blood test result that is incorrectly
normal in a person who has the suspected disease.
False-positive - a Blood test result that is incorrectly
abnormal in a person who does not have the suspected disease.
Febrile Non-Hemolytic Transfusion Reaction (FNHTR) - A
transfusion complication defined as a rise in temperature by one
degree Celsius or more during or within 24 hours of the completion of
a Blood transfusion.
- An iron-carrying protein which is a more accurate monitor of long
term body iron status than the Blood iron level, which varies with
- Fresh Frozen Plasma; a part of whole Blood.
Fibrinogen - A protein involved in coagulation. Fibrinogen
reacts with other molecules to produce Blood clots.
- A B-vitamin.
Formed Elements - The red and white Blood cells and platelets
found in whole Blood.
Fractionation - The process by which Blood plasma is
separated into some of its different component parts.
- Blood sugar.
(SGOT, SGPT) - Liver enzymes. Elevated for a variety of reasons.
Checked for suspected liver disease, also for suspected mononucleosis,
or to monitor the effect of long term drug therapy on the liver.
Graft-Versus-Host Disease (GVHD) - A disease caused by the
infusion or transplantation of immune cells from one individual into
Granulocytes - A type of white Blood cell that attacks and
destroys foreign substances. These are leukocytes which have specific
granules. The three different types of granulocytes have different
types of specific granules. Granulocytes are spherical in shape,
contain nuclei and include neutrophils, eosinophils, and basophils.
These cells are part of the formed elements of whole Blood.
Haplotypes - The genetic constitution of individuals with
respect to one member of a pair of genes; sets of single alleles or
closely linked genes that tend to be inherited together, such as those
of the major histocompatibility complex; portions of phenotypes
determined by genes located on one of a pair of chromosomes.
Hematocrit - The percentage of packed red Blood cells found
in a unit volume of whole Blood.
Hematologic - Of the Blood.
Hematologist - A medical term referring to a Blood
- The process of formation,
development, and differentiation of the formed elements of whole
- A hereditary disorder that causes your body tissues to absorb and
store too much iron. One cannot "catch" Hemochromatosis. It is a
hereditary condition, primarily. The disease (which is actually many
diseases) has also been known to develop as a result of dietary iron
intake in sufficient quantity. Its worst effects are preventable, by
early diagnosis and treatment, but, if the patient is not found in
time, it is crippling and potentially fatal.
Hemoglobin - The molecule in the red Blood cell that carries
oxygen. Hemoglobin combines with oxygen in the lungs and releases it
in the tissues. It is what makes Blood red.
- A process characterized by
the alternations in the red Blood cells' integrity resulting in the
release of hemoglobin into the surrounding medium in which the cells
Hemolytic Disease of the Newborn (HDN) - Prior to
1940 the occurrence of severe neonatal jaundice, without known cause,
in succeeding infants born to the same woman, was a relatively
uncommon disease, though very well known, icterus gravis familiaris,
now universally known as HDN.
The most cause of HDN is maternal alloimmunization, possibly ABO
incompatibility, but most cases documented cases of clinically severe
HDN have been associated with Rh(D) incompatibility. HDN may occur
when an Rh negative woman is carrying a fetus with an Rh positive
genotype. A feto-maternal bleed resulting in fetal red cells entering
the mother's circulation may cause Rh immunization. Rh HDN does not
occur during the first pregnancy, but may occur in subsequent
Hemostasis - The process of clotting.
B Surface Antigen - An indicator of a probable hepatitis B carrier
C (HCV) - In the United States, the most common Blood-borne
infection and a major cause of liver damage. HCV is spread primarily
through contact with infected Blood. It is responsible for 8,000 to
10,000 deaths in the United States annually. Many people have the
disease for years before it is detected.
Heterozygous - A genotype consisting of two different alleles
of a gene for a particular trait (Aa). Individuals who are
heterozygous for a trait are referred to as heterozygotes. (see
Type - Antigens present on most cells of the body which are
unique to the individual. It may be considered to be the individualís
Homologous Chromosomes - Chromosomes that are paired during
meiosis. Such chromosomes are alike with regard to size and also
position of the centromere. They also have the same genes, but not
necessarily the same alleles, at the same locus or location.
Homozygous - Having the same allele at the same locus on both
members of a pair of homologous chromosomes. Homozygous also refers
to a genotype consisting of two identical alleles of a gene for a
particular trait. An individual may be homozygous dominant (AA) or
homozygous recessive (aa). Individuals who are homozygous for a trait
are referred to as homozygotes.
Howell-Jolly Bodies - Spherical or ovoid nuclear fragments found
in newly differentiated erythrocytes. Red Blood cells with these
bodies appear in greater numbers after a splenectomy.
- A virus that may cause Blood or nerve disease.
Human Serum Albumin (HSA) - A plasma protein very important
in maintaining fluid balance in the Blood. Important in maintaining
Blood pressure, regulating fatty acids, and hormone transport.
Clinical uses include Blood volume replacement during shock, serious
burns and surgeries, as an adjunct during kidney dialysis and carrying
drugs through the Bloodstream.
Hypercalcemia - An excess of calcium in the
Hypocalcemia - A deficiency of calcium in the Blood.
Hypothermia - A condition of characterized by low body
Hypovolemia - An abnormally low volume of Blood circulating
through the body. It may result in hypovolemic shock.
Hypoxemia - Low oxygen levels in the Blood.
Idiopathic Thrombocytopenic Purpura (ITP) - An autoimmune
disease where the body makes antibodies against its own platelets.
Immunoglobin Alpha (IgA) - A type of immunoglobulin present
in Blood and body secretions which may aid in fighting infections.
Immunosuppressed - A condition brought about by disease or
chemotherapy where the individual is highly susceptible to infection.
Intraoperative - The period of time during a surgical
procedure. (see Preoperative, Postoperative and Perioperative)
Irradiated Red Blood Cells - Red Blood cells treated with
exposure to radiation in order to inactivate white Blood cells which
may cause graft-versus-host disease.
Ketsuekigata - The study of personality
analysis by Blood type. It has become a nearly indispensible part of
Japanese popular culture. Most of Japanese women and members of the
younger generation believe that there is some correlation between
Blood type and personality.
Leukocyte - The bodyís own white Blood cells or leukocytes (WBCís)
fight disease and maintain immune function in the Blood. In general,
white Blood cells in a Blood transfusion serve no purpose, but are
transfused along with the red Blood cells, platelets or plasma. These
unnecessary passengers can carry viruses, immune suppress patients and
release toxic substances.
Leukocyte-Reduced Blood Components - Helps to prevent Blood
transfusion reactions caused by white cells contaminating red cell and
platelet preparations and may reduce the likelihood of certain
infections. A filtering process is used.
Leukocytosis - A condition characterized by an abnormally high
total number of circulating leukocytes.
Leukopenia - A condition characterized by an abnormally low total
number of circulating leukocytes.
Leukoreduced - Removal of white Blood cells from products in
order to prevent certain transfusion reactions such as fever, chills,
Enzymes - Most often SGPT, SGOT; or alkaline phosphatase. Injury
to the liver from infection or obstruction of bile flow causes damage
to the cells; they leak various enzymes into the Bloodstream; their
detection in increased amounts most often means injury to the liver.
Lymphocytes - A leukocyte that directs the formation of
antibodies, and that has memory.
Macrocytes - Cells which are abnormally large,
especially red Blood cells.
- An essential Blood salt. Necessary for nerve function. Most usually
ordered in newborns.
Meiosis - Cell division in specialized tissues of ovaries and
testes which results in the production of sperm or ova. Meiosis
involves two divisions and results in four daughter cells, each
containing only half the original number of chromosomes--23 in the
case of humans. These cells can develop into gametes.
Metabolic - Pertaining to all chemical functions within the
Cells which are abnormally small, especially red Blood cells.
- This is the more quickly performed Blood test for infectious
- Nucleic Acid Amplification Testing
- NAT testing is expected to further reduce transfusion-associated
transmission of HIV and hepatitis C. This type of testing will be the
most manually intensive, most complex and expensive testing ever
undertaken to screen the Blood supply. NAT testing, which began in
May, 1999, is subject to FDA approval.
Neonatal Isoimmune Thrombocytopenia - An alloimmune disorder
characterized by low platelets at birth which can be accompanied by
Neoplastic Disease - Another term for cancer.
Neurologic - Refers to the brain, spinal cord, and nerves.
Nonhemolytic - Refers to transfusion reactions where the red
Blood cell is not destroyed.
Oncologic and Oncology - Terms referring ot the study of
Optisol - The trade name for a solution containing sodium,
dextrose, adenine and mannitol. Optisol supports red cell survival and
extends the shelf life to 42 days.
Pathology - The treatment of the essential nature of disease,
particularly structural and functional changes in tissues and organs
of the body caused by disease.
- The period of time
extending from the time of hospitalization for surgery through to the
time of discharge from the hospital. (see Preoperative, Intraoperative
Perioperative Autologous Transfusions (PAT) - The recovery,
washing and reinfusion of a patientís own Blood, which has been lost,
during and after surgery in order to reduce the need for transfusions.
Peripheral Stem Cell Collection and Processing - The removal,
separation and freezing of peripheral Blood or marrow, which contain
stem cells, for later reinfusion to restore a patientís Blood
manufacturing capability after radiation or chemotherapy.
- To puncture a vein for the purpose of withdrawing Blood; having to
do with Blood transfusion, diagnosis, or experiment, and treatment.
Plasma - The non-cellular liquid component of un-clotted
whole Blood. Plasma is the liquid medium in which the formed elements
of Blood are suspended and comprises the major portion of whole Blood.
Plasma is composed of 92% water, 7% protein and 1% minerals,
containing 6.5-8.0 grams of protein per deciliter of Blood. The main
proteins in plasma are: albumin (60%), globulins (alpha-1, alpha-2,
beta and gamma globulins (immunoglobulins) and clotting proteins
(especially fibrinogen). These proteins function to maintain oncotic
pressure (especially albumin), transport substances such as lipids,
hormones, medications, vitamins, and other nutrients. These proteins
are also part of the immune system (immunoglobulins), help Blood to
clot (clotting factors), maintain pH balance, and are enzymes in
chemical reactions throughout the body. Plasma is used to treat
clotting disorders, burn victims and shock.
Plasma Purpura - see Purpura.
Plateletpheresis - An apheresis procedure where platelets are
Platelets (PLTs) - Cytoplasmic fragments of
megakaryocytes (bone marrow cells). Platelets contain cytoplasmic
granules; however, they lack nuclei and are part of the formed
elements of Blood. They are colorless cells whose main function is to
control bleeding. Platelets are essential to normal Blood clotting.
They can be destroyed during treatment for cancer, leukemia, aplastic
anemia and other diseases.
Platelet Transfusion Refractoriness - The inability of
platelet transfusions to adequately increase the platelet count.
Pooling - The mixing together, in a vat, of the Blood plasma
that has been separated from the whole Blood donated by thousands to
tens of thousands of Blood donors for purposes of facilitating further
treatment and ease of management of resources.
Postoperative - The period of time after a surgical
operation. (see Preoperative, Intraoperative and Perioperative)
- One of the serum electrolytes.
Preoperative - The period of time before surgery. (see
Intraoperative, Postoperative and Perioperative)
Prion - A protein molecule that lacks nucleic acid, that is,
no DNA or RNA, often considered to be the cause of various infectious
diseases of the nervous system (such as Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease and
scrapie.) Very resilient, not easy to kill.
Prophylactic - Preventative.
Electrophoresis - A Blood test to determine the levels of the
immune proteins (globulins, or antibodies), and albumin.
(PT) - Prothrombin time. A test of the Blood clotting system and a
general test of the liver's capacity to synthesize needed Blood
Purpura - Bruising associated with receiving a Blood
transfusion (may occur on the skin or mucous membranes).
Latex - A Blood test for rheumatoid factor. Positive in
juvenile rheumatoid arthritis.
Cells (RBCs) - Blood cells (erythrocytes) which appear as
biconcave disks, lack nuclei and comprise the largest number of cells
of the formed elements of whole Blood. Red cells transport oxygen to
body cells and remove carbon dioxide. Red cells contain iron in the
Renal - Relating to the kidney.
Reticulocytes - Newly differentiated erythrocytes which contain
fine thread-like strands (network) of RNA (ribonucleic acids). The RNA
strands may be demonstrated by supravital staining with methylene
- The Rh factor is an inherited Blood group on red Blood cells like
the ABO Blood types. About 85% of the people in this country have it.
Those who have it are "Rh-positive," those who do not are
Romanowsky-Type Stains - Blood smear dyes having modified mixtures
of eosin and methylene blue. Wright's and Giemsa's stains are examples
of these types of Blood smear stains.
Saline - A solution comprised primarily of salt water.
Scrapie - Scrapie is a disease, a transmissible spongiform
encephalopathy, similar to nvCJD that occurs in
sheep, goats and other animals.
Screening Tests - Blood tests used to try to detect a disease
when there is little or no evidence of a suspected disease. (see
Sedimentation Rate (Sed Rate) - A nonspecific measure of
inflammatory response anywhere in the body; this test is elevated
(above the normal range) in infections and a wide variety of so-called
inflammatory diseases, for example rheumatoid arthritis, lupus, or
inflammatory bowel disease such as Crohn disease.
Sepsis - Also known as gram-negative bacteremia and
gram-positive bacteremia. An overwhelming bacterial infection of the
Blood and body organs caused by bacteria that has entered body tissue,
most often through a wound or incision, that leads to the formation of
pus, and/or to the spread of the bacteria throughout the blood stream.
- The noncellular liquid phase resulting from the clotting of a sample
whole Blood or plasma. Serum is equivalent to plasma without its
Sickle Cell Disease - A disease in which the affected person
makes an abnormal hemoglobin. Sickle cell disease is inherited.
- The major cytoskeleton protein, along with certain integral
proteins, responsible for maintaining the biconcave shape of
Systeme Internationale (SI) - A version of the metric system
used by Blood laboratories, mostly outside of the United States, that
differs slightly from the U. S. standard.
Therapeutic Apheresis - Enables hospitals to separate certain
Blood components from a patient and either replace or treat them
Transfusion - Replacing Blood or Blood components a body has
lost in surgery, through an accident, or as a result of medical
treatment such as chemotherapy.
Thrombocytopenia - A low platelet count.
Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic Purpura (TTP) - A disease state
in which red Blood cells and platelets are destroyed and the body
produces excessive Blood clots which may damage the kidneys and
Willebrand Disease - A Blood clotting disorder.
Warfarin Effect - Refers to the effect of thinning of the
Blood by a medication known as warfarin or coumadin.
White Blood Cells (WBCs or Leukocytes) -
Spherical shaped cells which contain nuclei and comprise the smaller
number of cells of the formed elements of whole Blood. The major
portion of the buffy coat is composed of white Blood cells. White
Cells are protective cells in the Bloodstream. They attack bacteria by
squeezing through capillary walls to reach the area of infection. (see
Blood - A general description for a sample of Blood taken from the
venous or arterial circulation. It is composed of Blood cells,
platelets, and plasma.